More than 500 million smallholder farms worldwide play a significant role in food production and the genetic diversity of the food supply. Until now, it has been difficult to get information to or from smallholder farmers, compounding basic infrastructural problems such as access to inputs, markets, financing, and training.
Administering crop insurance in Asian countries with small fragmented agriculture land holdings is an expensive affair, but costs can be substantially lowered with the introduction of index-based or parametric insurance schemes. These are managed, however, through relatively generic data measurements that do not always capture the experiences of individual farmers.
Findings from the AXA XL Agriculture Insurance Survey, 2018 focuses on the three emerging markets of Brazil, China and India. Based on in-depth interviews with agricultural insurers, brokers, associations and public institutions operating in these markets, this survey provides a unique view on the trends and drivers for agricultural insurance in these three countries.
Fruit flies are one of the world’s most destructive horticultural pests and pose risks to most commercial fruit and vegetable crops. This has major implications for the sustainable production and market access of Australia’s multi-billion-dollar horticultural industry. Worldwide there are over 4,000 species of fruit flies in the family Tephritidae of which around 350 species are of economic importance.
In Africa, 1,145 natural disasters including droughts, extreme temperatures, floods, storms, wildfire, earthquakes (including tsunamis), mass movements, volcanic activity and land- slides occurred during 1995 and 2015 with 308 million people affected and damages of US$ 17 billion. The most frequent type of disaster was floods (64%) followed by storms (14%) and droughts (13%). However, droughts accounted for 80% of the affected people. The total damage was US$ 17 billion.
Different parts of the world face different weather-driven perils, and one way to classify them is by their geographic extent. Localised events, such as hail, vary in frequency and severity from year to year, but a single event affects only a restricted area. Perils which affect very large geographic regions simultaneously are what we call “systemic risks” or “cat events” and can cause large losses, sometimes even spanning multiple countries. Here we examine one such catastrophic peril: winterkill.
It is widely acknowledged that unmitigated risks provide a disincentive for otherwise optimal investments in modern farm inputs. Index insurance provides a means for managing risk without the burdens of asymmetric information and high transaction costs that plague traditional indemnity-based crop insurance programs.
In the second and third ten-day periods of April, and in some cases even over the first ten days of May 2017, western, central, southern and eastern Europe experienced a series of frosty nights, with catastrophic consequences in many places for fruit growing and viticulture. The worst-affected countries were Italy, France, Germany, Poland, Spain and Switzerland. Losses were so high because vegetation was already well advanced following an exceptionally warm spell of weather in March that continued into the early part of April.
Humans and animals are all surrounded by microorganisms, some of which, called pathogens, can produce infectious illness and disease. Some pathogens affect both humans and animals, while others affect only animals or only certain species of animals. This newsletter looks at a disease that infects several types of farm animals and causes significant losses, both within and beyond the agricultural sector: foot and mouth disease (FMD).
This Congressional Budget Office report describes the structure of the crop insurance program, focusing on factors that influence its cost; discusses the government’s role in providing crop insurance; assesses how the program benefits various groups; and examines several policy options that would decrease spending on the program over the 2018–2027 period.
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