The intensity and area of occurrence of pest species are strongly determined by the overall climate conditions of a locality and the weather pattern within a given season in combination with other factors (e.g. host plant abundance). While inter-seasonal weather variability and consequent fluctuations of individual pest species are well-known phenomena, changes in overall climate conditions and associated range shifts of particular species have likewise become important areas of research, especially during the last decade.
Growers can benefit from new technology that warns of potential pest and disease threats. Weather stations and micro-climate monitoring have become major weapons in the battle against pests and diseases in crops. With the development of equipment linked to computers, accurate print-outs give growers precise models on which to base spraying programmes against pests and diseases in specific crops.
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